Project Catalyst is a big deal in Apple circles these days, and for good reason: The code name was used to describe a project to merge development for iOS and Mac apps, allowing you to use them interchangeably on all kinds of Apple devices.
At WWDC 2019, Apple officially revealed this as “Project Catalyst,” thought it was previously known as Project Marzipan. It’s a large undertaking that’s years away from being completed, but the seeds have planted for a very different future for your Mac.
What is Apple’s Project Catalyst?
It’s Apple’s effort to make its apps universal across iOS and MacOS. In other words, it could make it far simple for developers to translate their apps across iPhone, iPad, or Mac. The app would naturally sync as you move between devices and share all the same information, so you can continue its use.
In the past, MacOS and iOS apps were developed with different tools and different goals. Catalyst seeks to converge development into a single effort – one method that will produce an app that can work on any Apple device without needing significant changes. That means part of Catalyst is providing third-party developers with a new Xcode development kit that will allow them to create these universal apps.
Project Catalyst was first announced at WWDC 2018, alongside iOS 12 and MacOS Mojave, when it was still referred to as Project Marzipan. Marzipan, as you may know, is a sweet mixture of sugar, almond paste, and other ingredients that’s used as a filling and design material for confectionaries, especially cakes. Make of that what you will.
What’s the point?
There are a variety of reasons Apple is working on this important project. First off, to save the Mac App Store. It’s been relatively deserted for quite some time now. Even though the visuals of the app store got updated last year in MacOS Mojave, the amount of developers that use it is small. Even Twitter pulled its app from the store recently because it found that most people used the web application anyways. If Apple can harness the third-party development love it has in iOS and bring it to the Mac, an entire new marketplace of purchases will be opened up.
Secondly, Apple could be actively working on evolving the MacBook, both from a hardware and software perspective. Whether will officially merge the iPadOS and MacOS at some point (though it claims it has no such plans), or perhaps just make the two platforms place nicely, Project Catalyst will be a big part of making that happen.
So I’ll be able to use all my apps on MacOS or iOS?
Not so fast! Catalyst is still a work in progress as Apple continues to provide the tools developers need to create or transition their apps. Apple’s annual developer conference, WWDC 2019, released the Xcode SDK that developers will need to create universal apps. Once created, developers will still have to submit the app for consideration on both iOS and MacOS, although Apple intends to create a single universal submission process as well.
Fortunately for developers, the development kit shouldn’t be too difficult to adopt. Both iOS and MacOS use the same Unix code, use the Metal framework, and have other similarities that already give them plenty in common for development. Some developers found they could make give their apps universal features after just several hours of tinkering. But for most, using Catalyst’s new tools will take a little time to learn, even after they are released, and not all apps will be suitable candidates.
Are any apps currently universal?
Yes — Apple has made several of its iOS apps universal, as a sort of showcase for what Catalyst is supposed to accomplish. Those apps include News, Home, Stocks, and Voice Memos. Once MacOS Catalina launches later this year, more first-party applications such as Apple Music, Podcasts, and TV will be available through Project Catalyst.
However, keep in mind that the goal of Catalyst is to make apps on both operating systems universal, which means that Mac apps will also be able to cross over to iOS. It’s also worth mentioning that the reception of these apps was mixed: Users found the transitions to be clunky, especially when it came to Mac-based controls, showing that adapting previous versions of apps is far from a simple process.
A number of developers have indicated interest in using Catalyst to make their apps available universally. However, not many third parties have committed to this just yet. Expect this to start changing, now that WWDC 2019 has released the Catalyst SDK alongside MacOS Catalina. For example, social media companies like Twitter are already delivering interchangeable apps.
Beyond this, Apple has mentioned that it intends to universalize its Music, Podcast, and TV apps with the next big update to MacOS, so expect these apps to make the jump in the near future. However, there’s no guarantee for any other apps you use.
Why wouldn’t developers do this?
Catalyst has many advantages, but there are a couple reasons that developers may not be interested. First, iOS app development and submission are more tightly controlled by Apple — apps are only available for sale via the iOS store, whereas on Macs users can still buy apps from other sources. Developers who prefer the more lenient Mac sales options may not want to make the journey to iOS.
Second, as Apple itself discovered, making apps universal requires challenging interface changes. Apps need to be entirely controllable by touchscreens, but also friendly for mice and keyboards (and trackpads, and window resizing, and scroll bars, and drag/drop features…you get the idea). Including both at the same time can be a challenge for some developers, especially when updating older apps. If it takes too much work to do both, or if the results are unimpressive, developers may not bother.
The next couple of years are going to be very important for Catalyst adoption. Apple is expected to release updates for the Catalyst SDK through 2021, including growing compatibility for various apps. However, Apple is expected to make the development and submission process more efficient, until developers will be able to use one set of tools and make one submission for both iOS and MacOS.
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