President Barack Obama’s days in the Oval Office are counting down, but the 2016 presidential race is just getting started. While Republican voters will have the weekend off, Democrats in South Carolina will decide whether to vote for Hillary Clinton or Bernie Sanders in a primary election that could have dramatic implications for the rest of the race.
Here’s a breakdown of when all the primaries and caucuses are being held and how you can follow the results. Also, don’t forget to vote! We’ve added in voting location links to help you out and a link to register to vote if you haven’t yet.
What are primaries, caucuses, and delegates?
Before the Democrats and Republicans square off for the presidency, they each select a candidate, which they do through a long, rigorous process of primaries. By the time the two big parties convene for their conventions to officially nominate candidates, said candidates will have spent months fighting for delegates to support them in each of the fifty states. Not only is it a lengthy process, but for observers not versed in politics, it can be a convoluted one.
Securing a party’s nomination comes down to securing delegates. Delegates are members of the party — often activists or important party leaders at the local level — who convene to nominate a party’s candidate. Both Democrats and Republicans have long held public conventions in which they appoint their nominees for the presidential election. At these conventions, delegates nominate a candidate to represent the party in the general election. In the early days of American politics, these conventions were contentious events, with delegates deliberating on the convention floor about who should represent the party. This led to occasional surprises, such as James K. Polk being nominated by Democrats as a compromise.
Today, the conventions are largely for show; by the time the delegates have gathered, they have already pledged their support for a candidate. This is because of the primary system, in which individual states pledge their delegates to candidates in the lead-up to the conventions. This is where the election cycle can get complicated. The two big parties dole out delegates to each state based on various factors. The biggest factors in allocating delegates are the state’s population, and their support for the party. Republicans, for example, give each state 10 delegates to begin with, then additional delegates based on how that state has supported Republicans in higher offices such as the Senate.
The Democrats have a total of 4,763 delegates, and a candidate needs to win 2,382 in order to secure their nomination. Republicans have 2,472 delegates, and the Republican candidate wins the nomination with 1,237 delegates. How exactly do candidates win delegates? The local party in each state holds a primary or a caucus to decide which candidate will receive their delegates. Primaries are essentially just ballot elections, while a caucus is reminiscent of a town hall meeting; members of the community gather together to discuss issues that concern them and decide which candidate would better suit their interests.
One would think at this point that the delegate process is clear: a candidate wins a state, they get that state’s delegates. However, like everything else in the presidential election, it’s not that simple. Not only does each state have its own number of delegates, but some states award delegates based on percentage of votes. For the Democrats, this is the way it works in every state. A candidate gets a portion of the total delegates based on their share of the votes. Republicans make things a bit more complicated, implementing a proportional system in some states and a winner-take-all system in others.
In theory, delegates at the convention vote based on the will of their state’s constituents. However, there is an additional wrinkle in that “unbound” delegates can technically vote for any candidate they want. In the Democratic Party, these are known as “superdelegates,” generally high-ranking members of the party who can support whom they please, regardless of results. The addition of superdelegates was a reaction to the messy 1980 election, with many Democratic elites upset at what they perceived as the disorder of grassroots campaigns. The theory is that through superdelegates, the Democratic party can establish order in elections where the party is too fractured.
The recent New Hampshire primary is a good example of superdelegates at work. Although Sanders won the Democratic vote by 22 points, thus getting the bulk of the normal delegates, many of the state’s superdelegates pledged their support to Hillary Clinton. As such, the two candidates could end up getting roughly the same number of delegates from New Hampshire. It is important to note that superdelegates do not formally vote until the convention, and thus are not bound to a candidate despite pledging their support.
How to livestream the primary results
You can livestream the primary results even without cable TV. ABC News had a livestream of the New Hampshire primary, and it should have a new livestream of each primary from now on. We’ll continue to update this post each time there’s a primary, so you have the latest info. If you have a cable or satellite subscription with CNN, Fox News, or MSNBC, you can check those sites and apps for streaming video.
One of the best ways to stay on top of who’s winning the primaries while the votes are coming in is to check Twitter. During the Iowa caucus, tweets were constantly streaming in with the hashtag #IowaCaucus with live updates on vote count, delegate count, and predictions. New Hampshire’s were #NHPrimary and #FITN, which means “First In The Nation.”
You can, of course, follow the presidential hopeful of your choice on Twitter for updates and a call to arms. Many of the candidates have their own hashtags, too, so you can follow those for more specific results about your candidate. Here’s a breakdown of who to follow based on your candidate.
If you feel the Bern
Bernie Sanders supporters and his social media team tweet a lot, so following #FeelTheBern is sure to keep you on top of his results.
If you’re with her
Hillary Clinton’s supporters have happily picked up the #ImWithHer hashtag, so that’s your best bet for minute-by-minute results. For South Carolina specifically, check #SC4Hillary.
If you want to ‘make America great again’
If you choose Cruz
Ted Cruz has two major hashtags to follow and both seem equally well used, so it might be worth it to switch between them during the vote count.
If you believe in Marcomentum
After a surprising 3rd place finish in Iowa, Marco Rubio is using the hashtag (and ridiculous portmanteau) #Marcomentum to describe his success. His momentum didn’t quite carry over to New Hampshire, but he remains a viable establishment candidate, especially with Bush now out of the race. For the South Carolina primary, his team is using the handle @SC_TeamMarco.
Best apps to follow the primaries
There are plenty of great apps to help you follow the primaries. Here are a few of the main ones:
2016 Election App
This app helps you follow the 2016 Presidential Election with news on debates and primaries. It also shows you news, updates, and schedules.
Fox Election HQ 2016
This is Fox’s guide to the 2016 Presidential race. Get election news, read about the candidates, find out which candidate is for you, and get election updates.
The Washington Post
Naturally, the Washington Post has tons of political news. You’ll get breaking news, detailed analysis, and great commentary in this app.
Reuters is one of the best breaking news sources around. You know you can trust the results, because reports are strictly vetted, and you’ll get up-to-the-minute news as it happens.
Fun interactive maps and other online tools
Interactive maps help you to visualize what’s going on, especially during confusing primaries. The Washington Post has some great interactive graphics and maps detailing the current poll results.
Naturally, Politico has lots of graphs and charts to check out on its site, too.
When are the primaries?
Monday, February 1: Iowa caucus Tuesday, February 9: New Hampshire Saturday, February 20: Nevada caucus (D), South Carolina (R) Tuesday, February 23: Nevada caucus (R) Saturday, February 27: South Carolina (D) Tuesday, March 1 (Super Tuesday): Alabama, Alaska caucus (R), American Samoa caucus (D), Arkansas, Colorado caucus, Georgia, Massachusetts, Minnesota caucus, North Dakota caucus (R), Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas, Vermont, Virginia, Wyoming caucus Saturday, March 5: Kansas caucus, Kentucky caucus (R), Louisiana, Maine caucus (R), Nebraska caucus (D) Sunday, March 6: Maine caucus (D), Puerto Rico (R) Tuesday, March 8: Hawaii caucus (R), Idaho (R), Michigan, Mississippi, Democrats Abroad Saturday, March 12: Guam (R convention), Northern Marianas caucus (D), District of Columbia caucus (R) Tuesday, March 15: Florida, Illinois, Missouri, North Carolina, Northern Mariana Islands caucus (R), Ohio Saturday, March 19: Virgin Islands caucus (R) Tuesday, March 22: American Samoa (R convention), Arizona, Idaho caucus (D), Utah Saturday, March 26: Alaska caucus (D), Hawaii caucus (D), Washington caucus (D) Tuesday, April 5: Wisconsin Saturday, April 9: Wyoming caucus (D) Tuesday, April 19: New York Tuesday, April 26: Connecticut, Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island Tuesday, May 3: Indiana Saturday, May 7: Guam (D) Tuesday, May 10: Nebraska (R), West Virginia Tuesday, May 17: Kentucky (D), Oregon Tuesday, May 24: Washington (R) Saturday, June 4: Virgin Islands caucus (D) Sunday, June 5: Puerto Rico caucus (D) Tuesday, June 7: California, Montana, New Jersey, New Mexico, North Dakota caucus (D), South Dakota Tuesday, June 14: District of Columbia (D)
You can see the full schedule, number of delegates per state, and more here.
Hopefully, if you’re reading this and you’re 18-years-or-older, you’ve already registered to vote. If you haven’t, go do so before your state’s primary comes around. Here’s everything you need to know to register to vote.
Remember, countless people died to bring democracy to the United States, and many fought hard to gain the right to vote even after 1776, so get out there and be a good citizen. VOTE!
Updated 2-26-2016 by Will Nicol: Updated with information regarding the South Carolina Democratic primary.
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