Are e-cigarettes safe or not? Research on fog machines could lift the haze

e_cigarettes safe or not
Unlike e-cigarettes, researchers have studied the effects of fog machine “smoke” for decades.
Ask e-cigarette advocates for proof that their battery-powered vice is a safer way to maintain a nicotine addiction, and they’ll likely point you to an August 2013 study (PDF) from Drexel University’s School of Public Health, which found that “exposures from using e-cigarettes fall well below the threshold for concern for compounds with known toxicity.”

E-cigarette opponents will shoot back with a 2009 study from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration that found evidence of various carcinogens and other toxins in the vapor of two brands of e-cigarettes – findings that were supported earlier this year in a study out of France.

And those who remain on the fence will all say the same thing: We simply don’t know enough about e-cigarettes to judge their safety one way or another. As the World Health Organization wrote in July, “The potential risks [e-cigarettes] pose for the health of users remain undetermined.”

Overall lung function of those “working close to the fog source” was “significantly lower” than those not exposed to fog.

This is the narrative you’ll hear most often about e-cigarettes – that we just don’t have the science to back up safety claims one way or another. But none of the studies I’ve seen thus far – and I’ve read a whole lot of them – seem to take into consideration a potentially useful body of knowledge: Studies of fog machine “smoke.”

E-cigarettes, you see, are basically mini fog machines. Both work by heating glycols or glycerin to their boiling point, which then produces vapor. (Fog machines also use mineral oils, which are not used in e-cigarette juice.) There are a few significant differences – not the least of which is that e-cigarette juice often contains nicotine while fog machine vapor doesn’t – but the mechanics and chemicals are, at least generally, the same.

Like the safety of e-cigarettes, the health effects of fog machine vapor are matter of contention, especially among theatrical workers who spend much of their work day enveloped in fake “smoke.” However, unlike e-cigarettes, which were reportedly invented in 2003 by Chinese pharmacist Hon Lik, medical professionals have studied the health effects of fog machine vapor for decades.

fog machine
Theater limits on fog machine “smoke” remain high, despite itchy eyes and throats.

The first of these studies was released in 1991 by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which was asked by the Actors’ Equity Association (AEA) and the League of American Theaters and Producers (now known as The Broadway League) to investigate the effects of fog machine vapor on the health of actors and theatrical workers. NIOSH followed up its study with a revision (PDF) completed in 1994. In both cases, NIOSH found that, despite a high number of theater employees reporting negative respiratory, nasal, and mucous symptoms in questionnaires, there was little objective evidence that fog machine “smoke” cause more than a bit of throat and eye irritation.

The next major study (PDF) of fog machine “smoke” came in 2001 from the Department of Community and Preventative Medicine at the Mount Sinai School of Medicine and ENVIRONS, an environmental consulting firm. Like the NIOSH studies, the 2001 study was also commissioned by the AEA and the League of American Theaters and Producers. Also like the NIOSH studies, researchers found that inhaling vaporized glycols – like propylene glycol, a primary ingredient in e-cigarette juice – can cause “respiratory irritation, shortness of breath, and coughing.” Due to this, the study made a variety of detailed recommendations for how to monitor the amount of fog machine vapor in a particular space, and prescribed maximum exposure limits.

The primary question remains: If these are the short-term symptoms, what are the long-term consequences?

Perhaps the most recent study investigating the effects of fog machine vapor came in 2005. Conducted by the School of Environment and Health at the University of British Columbia and published by the American Journal of Industrial Medicine, this study focused on theater and other entertainment workers who were exposed to fog machine “smoke.” Unfortunately for the e-cigarette crowd, “acute cough and dry throat” resulted from high exposure to glycol-based vapor, and the overall lung function of those “working close to the fog source” was “significantly lower” than those not exposed to the fog.

As mentioned above, the correlation between the effects of fog machine vapor and e-cigarette vapor is far from perfect. Puffing on an e-cig is going to expose you to quite a bit more vapor than just being in a room with a fog machine running. On the flip side, fog machine smoke often uses chemicals that aren’t approved for human consumption, while e-cigarette liquid is often made of food-grade propylene glycol and vegetable glycerin.

What we can take from these studies, however, is that e-cigarettes will likely not be consequence-free. Coughing, dry throat, headaches, dizziness – all of these symptoms have been found among those exposed to high amounts of fog machine vapor, and e-cigarette users will privately report similar danger signs. (For the record, I’m one of them.) Still, fog machines haven’t been banned – a move some regulators would like to take with e-cigs.

At the end of the day, the primary question remains: If these are the short-term symptoms, what are the long-term consequences? That, unfortunately, remains to be seen, heard, or felt.

The views expressed here are solely those of the author and do not reflect the beliefs of Digital Trends.

Emerging Tech

Awesome Tech You Can’t Buy Yet: Racing drones and robotic ping pong trainers

Check out our roundup of the best new crowdfunding projects and product announcements that hit the web this week. You may not be able to buy this stuff yet, but it sure is fun to gawk!
Emerging Tech

Mars 2020 rover now has a rotating array of drill bits for sampling Martian rock

Most the key components in the Mars 2020 rover are installed and ready to go. The next phase of construction was to install the bit carousel, an important mechanism for the gathering and sorting of samples from the Martian surface.
Emerging Tech

NASA selects landing site candidates for OSIRIS-Rex to sample asteroid Bennu

Last year, the OSIRIS-REx craft arrived at asteroid Bennu, from which it will collect a sample from the asteroid to be brought back to Earth. Now, the NASA team has selected four potential sites to choose from for the sampling mission.
Emerging Tech

NASA wants to send two more missions to Mars to collect rock samples

With its Mars 2020 mission, NASA hopes to collect samples from the surface of the planet. The challenge is how to get those samples back to Earth. Now, NASA has revealed its plans for two followup missions to Mars.
Emerging Tech

Eric Geusz: Apple engineer by day, spaceship designer by night

An Apple software engineer by day, artist Eric Geusz spends his nights drawing everyday household objects as amazing, science fiction-style spaceships. Check out the impressive results.
Emerging Tech

The black hole at the center of our galaxy is flaring and no one knows why

At the heart of our galaxy lies a supermassive black hole, Sagittarius A*. Normally this giant monster is relatively docile, but recently it's been a hotbed of unexpected activity, rapidly glowing 75 times brighter than normal.
Emerging Tech

Wreckage, reefs, and robots: The high-tech quest to find Amelia Earhart’s plane

Over 80 years ago, American aviation pioneer Amelia Earhart disappeared while trying to fly around the world. Now an autonomous water-based robot could help find some answers. Here's how.
Emerging Tech

SpaceIL’s crashed lander may have sent thousands of tardigrades to the moon

When the SpaceIL craft Beresheet crashed into the moon earlier this year, it left more than just an impact mark. Thousands of micro-animals called tardigrades were along for the ride and may have survived the crash.
Emerging Tech

NASA’s satellite projects will study the sun using solar sailing

Small satellites can be used for all sorts of purposes, and NASA has been searching for ideas to push ahead the capabilities of the hardware. The agency has announced two new projects to demonstrate the potential of small satellites.
Emerging Tech

Hubble captures a beautiful cosmic jellyfish made of glowing gas

A new image from Hubble might look like a deep-space jellyfish, but it's not a sign of extraterrestrial life - in fact, it's a planetary nebula called NGC 2022, located in the constellation of Orion (The Hunter).
Emerging Tech

Parker Solar Probe makes a second orbit of the sun, captures solar wind on video

The Parker Solar Probe, launched last year, has completed its second orbit around the sun. To celebrate, the team responsible for the probe has released a video showing solar winds in action.

Starman on Tesla Roadster makes first orbit around sun, braces for loneliness

Starman and his Tesla Roadster, sent by SpaceX to outer space last year, have completed their first orbit around the sun. The people on Earth may be able to catch a glimpse of the cherry-red electric vehicle on November 2020.
Emerging Tech

Bernie Sanders calls for a ban on police use of facial recognition

Democratic presidential hopeful Sen. Bernie Sanders is calling for a complete ban on the use of facial recognition by law enforcement as part of the new criminal justice reform plan he introduced this weekend.
Emerging Tech

On the fence about buying solar panels? Tesla now offers them for rent

With solar rental Tesla says “customers get the best from solar power — clean, cheap energy to power homes and vehicles — without upfront costs or decades-long agreements. In fact, customers can get solar power with one click, instead…