Like any complex piece of software, Windows 10 and its installation process is vulnerable to mistakes, glitches, and hardware errors. That being the case, here are some of the most commonly-encountered problems that arise when installing or upgrading to the new version of Windows. If you’ve got Windows 10 installation problems, you’ve come to the right place.
Side note: If the latest version of Windows 10 is experiencing widespread problems, you may also want to wait before updating. The April 2018 update alone had the potential to wipe all the data from your desktop or break Chrome, and the October 2018 update had its own share of problems, leading to recalls and delays. Not an ideal outcome!
Run the Windows Update troubleshooter
Windows 10 includes a troubleshooter that can automatically detect and try to fix problems with updates and patches. If the problem isn’t clear and you aren’t sure what to do next, try running this troubleshooter. It doesn’t always find a solution, but it’s a good place to start.
Step 1: Head to your search box and type in Troubleshoot. Select the Troubleshoot option that awaits in System Settings.
Step 2: A new troubleshooting window will open. In the first section, called Get up and running, you should see an option for Windows Update. Select it.
Step 3: A new button should now appear that says Run the troubleshooter. Select it to automatically start the troubleshooter and see how it can help.
Step 4: A new troubleshooter window will now open as Windows 10 scans for any problems. If it finds any issues — and it will look for everything from missing updates to corrupted files — then it will notify you and ask if you want to Apply this fix or Skip this fix. Since you are trying to fix your update, it’s a good idea to always choose the Apply option here.
When finished, the troubleshooter will give you a list of any problems found and fixed, at which point you can select Close to end the process. If the troubleshooter did find and fix notable issues, you should now try your update process again.
Low disk space
Windows 10 requires quite a bit of free disk space on your hard or solid state drive in order to install. The 32-bit version of the OS — used mostly on tablets and less expensive laptops at this point — needs 16GB of free space, the 64-bit version needs 20GB. If you’re installing from a file stored on your computer itself with the Microsoft upgrade tool, you’ll need an additional two to 4GB just for the installation files. Windows 10 will also start reserving 7GB of space to help make sure there’s enough for most installs.
If you have a full storage drive, or a small one to begin with, you’ll need to make some room. The quickest way to do this is to uninstall space-hogging programs. Robust 3D games and complex packages like Adobe Creative Suite take up gigabytes of space. Uninstall them and be sure to back up any save files or settings. Don’t worry, you can re-install them from the installation discs or with a download once Windows 10 is properly set up.
Should you still need more space, it’s recommended you remove files in the following order: video files, audio files, images of all kinds, then documents, and other files. Check out our guide on how to clean your hard drive for more information. An external USB hard drive is the quickest and easiest way to accomplish this — simply save any files you can’t delete to the external media, and they’ll be easy to restore once you’ve installed Windows 10. Afterward, empty the Recycle Bin to clear the deleted files, or run a program like CCleaner to clear out your browser caches, logs, and other things that take up storage space.
To check your progress, click the Start button, type This PC, and click the result. The drive labeled Windows is what Windows 10 will install to — make sure you’ve got at least 20GB free just to be safe.
ISO image issues
If you’ve used the Microsoft Media Creation tool to burn a disc or create a bootable USB drive to install Windows 10, it’s possible that the media itself is damaged or corrupt. This will result in a failed or damaged installation. Sadly, it’s extremely difficult or impossible to modify the files once they’re written to the disc or drive. You’ll need to run the tool again to install Windows 10, which may necessitate access to another laptop or installing your older version of Windows again.
If you continue to experience problems after creating multiple installation media and trying to install Windows 10 more than once, you may have a persistent hardware problem. The CD/DVD burner or the USB drive you’re using may be faulty. If possible, try using a different USB drive or an external disc burner.
Thankfully, you might be able to just install Windows 10 from an ISO image, which you can grab here, for free. Fire it up, follow the prompts, and it’ll tell you if you’ll be able to install your new operating system without the use of external media like flash drives and discs.
Sometimes during the Windows installation process, the program will stop and display an error code. There are hundreds of possible error codes and at least as many potential problems. The best thing to do in this situation is to write down the code — you may not be able to copy it from the display screen — and search the internet for the core problem, and hopefully, a solution.
Here are some of the steps you can take if there’s no reliable information for your specific code:
- Unplug any unnecessary devices from your computer, like flash drives and dongles. Laptops should have nothing plugged in at all (except a power cord), and desktops should only have a monitor, mouse, and keyboard attached.
- For desktops, remove or disconnect any unnecessary internal hardware. If your PC includes an integrated graphics card or sound card on the motherboard, remove any standalone cards. Unplug any secondary storage drives (but not the primary OS drive), disc drives, card readers, and extra hardware such as a fan controller or USB extension connected to a PCI port.
- If you’re upgrading your PC and you’ve selected a standard upgrade that preserves your programs, remove unnecessary programs before beginning the installation process. Anti-virus programs and drivers for devices like game controllers seem to have the most trouble during the upgrade process.
- If your Windows install or upgrade doesn’t complete, or if you have issues with startup, you might want to disable hibernation, which you can do by typing “powercfg /h off” into a Command Prompt window.
- Alternately, simply install the operating system “cleanly,” preserving your personal files but not the programs. To do so, select “Custom: Install Windows” instead of “Upgrade” during the setup process. You can re-install your programs later.
Microsoft also offers a list of potential Windows 10 installation error codes, and what they mean.
Windows 10 runs on a variety of hardware, including Atom-based tablets and other low-power systems, but it does have minimum requirements. If your computer has a processor with a speed of less than 1GHz — or RAM totaling less than 1GB for the 32-bit version or 2GB for the 64-bit version — the setup wizard will not allow you to complete the installation. Desktop users can often upgrade their RAM or processor, but laptop users who don’t meet the minimum requirements are probably out of luck.
For a look at how much RAM you really need, check out our guide to all things memory.